IoC concepts: Service

As part of preparing for release of Windsor 3.1 I decided to revisit parts of Windsor’s documentation and try to make it more approachable to some completely new to IoC. This and few following posts are excerpts from that new documentation. As such I would appreciate any feedback, especially around how clearly the concepts in question are explained for someone who had no prior exposure to them.

As every technology, Windsor has certain basic concepts that you need to understand in order to be able to properly use it. Fear not – they may have scary and complicated names and abstract definitions but they are quite simple to grasp.


First concept that you’ll see over and over in the documentation and in Windsor’s API is service. Actual definition goes somewhat like this: “service is an abstract contract describing some cohesive unit of functionality”.

Service in Windsor and WCF service
The term service is extremely overloaded and has become even more so in recent years. Services as used in this documentation are a broader term than for example WCF services.

Now in plain language, let’s imagine you enter a coffee shop you’ve never been to. You talk to the barista, order your coffee, pay, wait and enjoy your cup of perfect Cappuccino. Now, let’s look at the interactions you went through:

  • specify the coffee you want
  • pay
  • get the coffee

They are the same for pretty much every coffee shop on the planet. They are the coffee shop service. Does it start making a bit more sense now? The coffee shop has clearly defined, cohesive functionality it exposes – it makes coffee. The contract is pretty abstract and high level. It doesn’t concern itself with “implementation details”; what sort of coffee-machine and beans does the coffee shop have, how big it is, and what’s the name of the barista, and color of her shirt. You, as a user don’t care about those things, you only care about getting your cappuccino, so all the things that don’t directly impact you getting your coffee do not belong as part of the service.

Hopefully you’re getting a better picture of what it’s all about, and what makes a good service. Now back in .NET land we might define a coffee shop as an interface (since interfaces are by definition abstract and have no implementation details you’ll often find that your services will be defined as interfaces).

public interface ICoffeeShop
   Coffee GetCoffee(CoffeeRequest request);

The actual details obviously can vary, but it has all the important aspects. The service defined by our ICoffeeShop is high level. It defines all the aspects required to successfully order a coffee, and yet it doesn’t leak any details on who, how or where prepares the coffee.

If coffee is not your thing, you can find examples of good contracts in many areas of your codebase. IController in ASP.NET MVC, which defines all the details required by ASP.NET MVC framework to successfully plug your controller into its processing pipeline, yet gives you all the flexibility you need to implement the controller, whether you’re building a social networking site, or e-commerce application.

If that’s all clear and simple now, let’s move to the next important concept (in the next post).

  • Why does the GetCoffee method return a Future? If this is supposed to be an introduction to DI concepts, I think it would be important to keep the amount of ‘strangeness’ to a minimum.

    If you change the declaration of the GetCoffee method to return a plain Coffee instance, I think it would be clearer to the reader what a Service is.

    • pandmeofficialblog

      Fair enough 🙂